State of gut microbiota and dietary preferences in obese adolescents
Aim. To study the features of food preferences and the state of gut microbiota in obese adolescents.
Materials and Methods. The study involved 71 obese adolescents (49.3% - girls, 50.7% -boys) aged 12-17 years, who were treated at the SI "Institute for Children and Adolescent Health Care at the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine". All the examined subjects underwent clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination; 55 obese adolescents underwent microbiological examination of feces. The control group included 18 healthy adolescents.
Results and Discussion. The study revealed that most frequently the patients complained of increased appetite - 71.8%, dyspeptic symptoms - 54.9%, and abdominal pain - 52.1%. There was a significantly higher frequency of irregular eating schedule (74.6% vs 33.3%), late dinner (69.0% vs 27.8%), fast food consumption (33.8% vs 11.1%), and a significantly lower content of vegetables and fruit in the diet (54.9% vs 83.4%) in patients compared to healthy individuals. Insulin resistance in 63.4% and pathological changes in lipid levels in 66.2% of obese adolescents were noted. According to the results of ultrasound examination, an enlarged liver was determined in 95.8% of obese adolescents; an increase in echogenicity and decreased sound conduction of the liver parenchyma were noted in 74.6% of obese subjects. Upon microbiological examination of the faeces, it was found that 78.2% of obese adolescents presented with dysbiotic changes. Glucose levels and a homeostatic model assessment were significantly higher in obese adolescents with dysbiosis.
Conclusions. Violations of eating regime and state of the gut microbiota were found in ¾ of obese adolescents.More than a half of obese adolescents presented with insulin resistance and disturbed lipid metabolism; moreover, in the presence of dysbiotic changes, disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism were more significant. There were signs of liver steatosis in the majority of obese adolescents.
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