CLINICAL FEATURES OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH EARLY GESTOSIS
Aim: to determine the clinical features of women with early gestosis.
Materials and Methods. The retrospective study included 200 pregnant women. The main group included 150 pregnant women with early gestosis. The control group included 50 women with physiological pregnancies.
Results. Among pregnant women with early gestosis, the share of unemployed women (30.0%), workers in enterprises and agriculture (24.0%) and female students (22.0%) was significant, (р<0,001). Cigarette smoking was identified in 20.0% of women in the main group. In childhood, 32.0% of women with early gestosis suffered from childhood infectious diseases. In women with early gestosis, somatic pathology was probably more common: diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (52.0%), diseases of the cardiovascular system (40.0%); anemia (38.0%); pathology of the urinary system (18.0%); endocrine diseases (20.0%), psycho-emotional disorders (38.0%), (р<0,001, c2 =13,20). Abnormal uterine bleeding are observed in 18.0% of women in the main group. The rate of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs among pregnant women with early gestosis was 32.0%, cervical pathology - 16.0%; the level of artificial abortions was 26.0%, (р<0,001, c22 = 22,74).
Discussion. Nausea and vomiting in pregnant women is one of the most common pregnancy disorders. Symptoms occur mainly in the first trimester, although in some patients they may persist throughout pregnancy and affect a woman's quality of life. The pathogenesis of early gestosis remains unclear, but there is a consensus that these disorders are multifactorial and that various genetic, psychological, endocrine, and infectious factors may be involved. Our retrospective analysis of the premorbid background in women with early gestosis revealed its peculiarities. The high level of somatic morbidity and smoking in women with early gestosis in comparison with pregnant women of the control group corresponds to modern ideas about the importance of extragenital pathology and bad habits in the etiopathogenesis of pregnancy complications.
Conclusions. The results of this study show that women with early gestosis are characterized by a high level of somatic diseases and psycho-emotional disorders, smoking, relatively unsatisfactory social conditions.
Relationship with research programs, plans and topics. This work is a fragment of the scientific work of the I.D. Lanovyi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology "Development of diagnostic tactics and pathogenetic substantiation of effective methods of preserving and restoring reproductive potential and improving the quality of life of women in obstetric and gynecological pathology" (state registration number 0121U109269).
Lymanska A. Yu., Davydova Yu. V. The main provisions of treatment of pregnant women with nausea and vomiting at the stage of primary care [Ukrainian] Available at: https://health-ua.com/article/40603-osnovn-polozhennya-lkuvannya-vagtnih--znudotoyu-tablyuvannyam-naetap--pervi
Bustos M, Venkataramanan R, Caritis S. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy - What's new? Auton Neurosci. 2017 Jan;202:62-72. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2016.05.002.
Erick M. Hyperemesis gravidarum: a case of starvation and altered sensorium gestosis (ASG). Med Hypotheses. 2014 May;82(5):572-80. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2014.02.014.
Jennings LK, Krywko DM. Hyperemesis Gravidarum. [Updated 2021 May 13]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2021; Jan. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/books/NBK532917/
Fejzo MS, Trovik J, Grooten IJ, Sridharan K, Roseboom TJ, Vikanes A. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019; 5(1):62. doi: 10.1038/s41572-019- 0110-3.
Heitmann K, Nordeng H, Havnen GC, Solheimsnes A, Holst L. The burden of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: severe impacts on quality of life, daily life functioning and willingness to become pregnant again-results from a cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017; 17(1):75-87. doi: 10.1186/s12884-017-1249-0
Faramarzi M, Yazdani S, Barat S. A RCT of psychotherapy in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2015 Dec;30(12):2764-73. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dev248.
Festin M. Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. BMJ Clin Evid. 2014 Mar 19;2014:1405.
Coco L, Giannone TT, Zarbo G. Management of high-risk pregnancy. Minerva Ginecol. 2014 Aug; 66(4):383-9.
Filippova RD, Stepanova NR, Nikiforova VN. Health status of pregnant women. Wiad Lek. 2015;68(4):596-7.
Kostyuk AL, Tarasyuk EK, Masibroda NG, Storozhuk MS. Risk factors for urogenital disorders during pregnancy and after childbirth. Wiad Lek. 2016;69(6):747-749.
Tudosa R, Vartej P, Horhoianu I, Ghica C, Mateescu S, Dumitrache I. Maternal and fetal complications of the hypothyroidism-related pregnancy. Maedica (Bucur). 2010 Apr;5(2):116-23.
Suzuki F, Kasamatsu T. [Smoking and obstetric and gynecological disorders]. Nihon Rinsho. 2013 Mar;71(3):449-53. Japanese. PMID: 23631233.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.