SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF INVASIVE DUCTAL BREAST CANCER
Aim. Establishing the surface characteristics of ductal breast cancer of different degree of differentiation and different histological structure of the invasive component in scanning electron microscopy.
Material and Methods. The results of the study of invasive ductal breast cancer using light and scanning electron microscopy were analyzed. The degree of malignancy was determined according to a modified scheme of P. Scarff, H. Bloom and W. Richardson. Electron microscopic features of the cell surface of invasive ductal breast cancer during this study were compared in each case with its histological structure and degree of malignancy G.
Results and Discussion. Histologically, tubular, trabecular, solid, alveolar structures and discrete (single) groups of tumor cells were diagnosed in the infiltrative component of invasive ductal breast carcinoma. In terms of the surface configuration of tumor cells, we have identified three cell variants. The first variant was characterized by the presence in most tumor cells numerous asymmetric microvilli with diffuse or focal distribution on the cell surface and was prevailed in the tubular structures of the infiltrative component of ductal breast carcinoma of G1 grade (p<0,05). The second variant of the surface configuration was characterized by a small number of asymmetric microvilli scattered throughout the cell surface and was diagnosed in a solid and trabecular invasive component of malignancies G2 and G3 grades. The third variant was characterized by the absence of microvilli on the surface in most tumor cells and was prevailed in the alveolar structures of the invasive component of G2 and G3 grades. It was found that the decrease in the grade of histological differentiation of invasive ductal breast cancer is associated with a decrease or absence of asymmetric microvilli on the cell surface. Tumors classified as G2 showed a wide range of surface configurations of cancer cells; in 75% [27,96-99,89] of cases G3 carcinoma was characterized by the absence of microvilli on the surface in most tumor cells, i.e., there was a III variant surface configuration of cells.
Conclusions. Scanning electron microscopy makes it possible to provide information in a nanometer scale about the surface features of tumor cells, and the identification of phenotype features between tumor cells can be prognostically important in the course of breast cancer.
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