Oro- and pharyngostoma. Relevant questions in head and neck reconstructive surgery

  • S.Y. Karp The Danylo Halytsky National Medical University in Lviv
Keywords: head and neck cancer, orostoma, pharyngostoma, reconstructive surgery

Abstract

This work is the analysis of data of modern scientific sources about main global trends in the study of etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic features, clinical course and treatment strategy of oro- and pharyngostomas as a complication of combined treatment of head and neck cancer pathology. The main emphasis is placed on the difficulty of the treatment strategy, especially using active reconstructive surgery procedures.

Aim. To analyze modern views on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and variants of treatment of this complication. 

Material and Methods. The analysis of scientific medical publications in electronic databases PubMed, MedLine and Hinari with sufficient level of relevance from 2006 to 2016 was performed and the reviewed data were summarized. Fifty-eight selected sources that most fully reflected the current views of the problem were selected.

Results and Discussion. The appearance of oro- and pharyngostomas after combined treatment of head and neck tumors remains a pressing issue for oncosurgery and reconstructive surgery in general. They worsen the postoperative period and limit the possibility of adequate rehabilitation of these patients. The multifactoral nature of the stomas does not allow to fully understand etiopathogenesis and, consequently, to develop a clear preventive algorithm. At the same time treatment of stomas can be both conservative and employ active surgical procedures. The choice of a method of reconstruction remains controversial, and the methods - mutually competitive.

Conclusion. The reviewed literature data show the importance of early risk factors detection of the formation of the oro- and pharyngostomas and the need to improve the treatment strategy using the surgical correction of this complication.

References

Abood A, Halvorson E, Pusic A, Mehrara B: A modified "paddle-flap" for reconstruction of a large pharyngo-cutaneous fistula and anterior neck defect. Another tool in the anterolateral thigh's box. Journal of plast reconstruct and aesthet surg 2008, 62, 142-144.

Alos L, Castillo M, Nadal A: Adenosquamous carcinoma of the head and neck: criteria for diagnosis in a study of 12. Histopathology 2004, 44, 570-579.

Austin JR, Wong FC, Kim EE: Positron emission tomograph in the detection of residual laryngeal carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995, 404-406.

Andrew DP, Marucci DD: Clinical outcomes after reconstructive oral surgery. Journal of Plast Reconst Aesthet Surg 2009, 62(1), 127-128.

Baker SR: Local flaps in facial reconstruction. Elsevier, Michigan 2014, 615-665.

Booth PW: Maxillofacial trauma and esthetic facial reconstruction. Elsevier, Indianapolis 2012, 123-240.

Butler CE, Evans GR : Head and neck reconstruction. Elsevier, Philadelphia 2009, 215-256.

Bhattacharyya AK, Nerurkar NK: Laryngology, 1st ed. Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Limited 2014, 212-260.

Bengtson BP, Schusterman MA, Baldwin BJ: Influence of prior radiotherapy on the development of postoperative complications and success of free tissue transfers in head and neck cancer reconstruction. Am J Surg 1993, 166, 326-330.

Basheeth N, O'Leary G, Sheahan P: Pharyngocutaneous fistula after salvage laryngectomy: impact of interval between radiotherapy and surgery, and performance of bilateral neck dissection. Head Neck 2014, 36(4), 580-584.

Chang DW, Wussussian HR, Lewin JS: Analysis of pharyngocutaneous fistula following free jejunal transfer for total laryngopharyngectomy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002, 109, 1522-1527.

Cohen JI, Clayman GL: Atlas of head & neck surgery. Elsevier, Texas 2011, 420-450.

Chu MM, Kositwattanarerk A, Lee DJ: FDG PET with contrast enhanced CT: A critical imaging tool for laryngeal carcinoma. Radiographics 2010, 30, 1353-1372.

Cooper JS, Zhang Q, Pajak TF: Long-term follow-up of the RTOG 9501/intergroup phase III trial: postoperative concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy in high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012, 84, 1198-1205.

Cecatto CG, Soares LV, Henriques JF: Predictive factors for the postlaryngectomy pharyngocutaneous fistula development: systematic review. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2014, 80(2), 167-177.

Doescher J, Piontek G, Wirth M, Bettstetter M: Epstein-Barr virus infection is strictly associated with the metastatic spread of sinonasal squamous-cell carcinomas. Oral Oncol 2015, 51(10), 929-934.

Dayyani F, Etzel CJ, Liu M: Meta-analysis of the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) on cancer risk and overall survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Head Neck Oncol 2010, 2, 1-15.

Felice FD, Thomas C, Barrington S, Lei M: Analysis of loco-regional failures in head and neck cancer after radical radiation therapy. Oral Oncol 2015, 51(11), 1051-1055.

Forastiere AA, Goepfert H, Maor M: Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for organ preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med 2003, 349, 2091-2098.

Friedman FM, Venkatesan TK, Yakovlev AA: Early detection and treatment of postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999, 121, 378-380.

Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, Mannara.Ferlito GM: Is primary radiotherapy an appropriate option for the treatment of verrucous carcinoma of the head and neck? J Laryngol Otol 1998, 112, 132-139.

Forastiere AA, Zhang Q, Weber RS: Long-term results of RTOG 91-11: a comparison of three nonsurgical treatment strategies to preserve the larynx in patients with locally advanced larynx cancer. J Clin Oncol 2013, 31, 845-852.

Gale N: WHO Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours. Oxford University Press 2005, 144 - 145 .

Gill GA, Johnston N, Buda A: Laryngeal epithelial defenses against laryngopharyngeal reflux: investigations of E-cadherin, carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III, and pepsin. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2005, 114(12), 913-921.

Hoffman HT, Porter K, Karnell LH: Laryngeal cancer in the United States: changes in demographics, patterns of care, and survival. Laryngoscope 2006, 116 suppl.111, 1-13.

Iglesias-Morenoab MC, Gimeno-Hern?ndezab J: Pharyngo-cutaneous fistula: An old problem revisited. Acta Oto-Laryngologica 2011, 131(12), 1311-1318.

Jackel MC, Ambrosch P, Alexios M: Impact of re-resection for inadequate margins on the prognosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer treated by laser microsurgery. Laryngoscope 2007, 117(2), 350-356.

Keelawat S, Liu SZ, Roehm PC: Adenosquamous carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases and review of the literature. Am J Otolaryngol 2002, 23, 160-168.

Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Tsakmaki C: Cancer stem cell phenotype relates to radio-chemotherapy outcome in locally advanced squamous cell head-neck. Br J Cancer 2012, 106, 846-853.

Kramer FJ, Bohrnsen F, Moser N, Schliephake H: The submental island flap for the treatment of intraoral tumor-related defects: no effect on recurrence rates. Oral oncology 2015, 51(6), 668-673.

Leu JI, Pimkina J, Frank A: A small molecule inhibitor of inducible heat shock protein. Mol Cell 2009, 36(1), 15-27.

Linkov F, Lisovich A, Yurkovetsky Z: Early detection of head and neck cancer: development of a novel screening tool using multiplexed immunobead-based biomarker profiling. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007, 16, 102-107.

Leu JI, Pimkina J, Pandey P: HSP70 inhibition by the small-molecule 2-phenylethynesulfonamide impairs protein clearance pathways in tumor cells. Mol Cancer Res 2011, 9(7), 936-947.34. Licitra L, Mesia R, Keiholz U: Individualised quality of life as a measure to guide treatment choices in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Oral Oncol 2016, 52(1), 18-23.

Li S, Chen CH, Pan J,Wu W: Oral lesions, chronic diseases and the risk of head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol 2015, 51(12), 1021-1028.

Louie KS, Mehanna H, Sasieni P: Trends in head and neck cancers from 1995 to 2011 and projections up to 2025. Oral oncol 2015, 51(5), 341-348.

Medina JE, Khafif ED: Early oral feeding following total laryngectomy. Laryngoscope 2001, 111, 368-372.

Martini FH, Timmons MJ, Tallitsch RB: Human Anatomy, 8th ed. Pearson Education Inc 2014, 230-390.

Martini FH, Nath JL, Bartholomew EF: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 10th ed. Pearson Education Inc 2015, 960-990.

McKinley MP, O'Loughlin VD: Human anatomy, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill 2012, 358-420.

Miller AH: Premalignant laryngeal lesions, carcinoma in situ, superficial carcinoma: Definition and management. Can J Otolaryngol 1974, 3, 420-456.

Moore KL, Dalley AF: Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 7th ed. Lippincott 2014, 670-700.

McCombe L, Jones M: Radiotherapy and complications of laryngectomy. J Laryngol Otol 1993, 107, 130-132.

Makarby H: The Reliability of Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap in Head and Neck Reconstruction. Journal of the Egyptian Nat. Cancer Inst 2006, 18(1), 41-50.

Pay AD, Marucci DD, Morrit DG: Combined pectoralis major myocutaneous and fenestrated deltopectoral flaps for salvage tracheostomal, pharyngeal and neck skin reconstruction. Journal of plast reconst and aesthet surg 2007, 12, 127-128.

Rathod S, Livergant J, Klein J, Witterick I: A systematic review of quality of life in head and neck cancer treated with surgery with or without adjuvant treatment. Oral Onco 2015, 51(10), 888-900.

Rigual NR, Sharfirstein G, Frustinon J: Adjuvant intraoperative photodynamic therapy in head and neck. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013, 139(7), 706-711.

Silver CE, Beitler JJ, Shaha AR: Current trends in initial management of laryngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2009, 266, 1333-1352.

Singh BF, Cordeiro PG, Santamaria EA: Factors associated with complicationsin microvascular reconstruction of head and neck defects. Plast Reconstr Surg 1999, 103, 403-411.

Seikaly H, Park P: Gastroesophageal reflux prophylaxis decreases the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy. Laryngoscope 1995, 105, 1220-1222.

Sassler AM, Esclamado EM, Wolf GT: Surgery after organ preservation therapy: analysis of wound complications. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995, 121, 162-165.

Sayles MB, Chir BG, David GF: Preventing Pharyngo-Cutaneous Fistula in Total Laryngectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Laryngoscope 2014, 124, 1150-1163.

Santana LM, Sawada NO: Pharyngocutaneous fistulae after total laryngectomy: a systematic review. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 2008, 16, 772-778.

Soylu L, Kiroglu M, Aydogan B: Pharyngocutaneous fistula following laryngectomy. Head Neck 1998, 2, 22-25.

Tornero J, Cruz-Toro P, Farr? A: Free Radial Forearm Flap in Head and Neck. Our Experience. Head & Neck 2012, 34, 238-244.

Villares CM, Pomar P, Iglesias MC, Roman JS: Predictive biochemical indicators of a postlaryngectomy pharyngocutaneous fistula: a clinical study. Acta Otorinolaringol Esp 2006, 56, 140-144.

Zan T, Li H, Du Z, Gu B: Reconstruction of the face and neck with different types of pre-expanded anterior chest flaps: a comprehensive strategy for multiple techniques. Journal of plast reconstruct and aesthet surg 2013, 66, 1074-1081.

Zaki HS, Kharchaf MD, Carrau RL: Prosthetic management of pharyngocutaneous fistula by means of a salivary conduit. Laryngoscope 2001, 111, 548-551.

Published
2016-12-28
How to Cite
Karp, S. (2016). Oro- and pharyngostoma. Relevant questions in head and neck reconstructive surgery. Acta Medica Leopoliensia, 22(4), 62-68. Retrieved from https://amljournal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/179