Application of lectin histochemistry methods for the investigation of influences of thyroid hormones imbalance on the organism
A literature survey concerning application of lectin histochemistry methods for investigating the effect of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the organ systems. It was established that redistribution of lectin receptor sites on the background of thyroid hormones imbalance showed signs of species and organ specificity. It was demonstrated that hypo- and hyperthyroidism cause a violation of the regulatory influence of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis on the function of peripheral endocrine organs; change the intensity of metabolism and the rate of cell proliferation; and stimulate destructive changes and apoptosis phenomena in target organs. Specifically, in the salivary glands, the thyroid imbalance caused the accumulation of terminal carbohydrate residues DGal and DGalNAc in combination with reduction of DMan, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc and LFuc determinants; on this basis, was formulated the hypothesis of incompleteness of the final glycosilation steps in conjunction with lysosomal glycosidase synthesis disorders, both these processes causing the accumulation of abnormal glycoconjugates in tissues. Storage of secretory products in the glandular cells may be associated with blocking of exocytosis mechanisms. Hypothyroidism caused a decreased reduction rate of DGal and DGalNAc embryospecific carbohydrate determinants (lectin PNA, SBA, HPA receptor sites), which apparently indicate a delay in organ morphogenesis. On the background of maternal hypothyroidism in the testes of offspring rats there was documented an increased proliferation of spermatogenic epithelium, Sertoli and Leydig cells contents, in combination with the increased apoptosis of spermatogenic epithelium. A hypothesis on possible role of HPA lectin receptors as markers of human sperm cells apoptosis on the background of thyroid gland dysfunction was formulated. Hyperthyroidism induced the enhanced collagen synthesis by fibroblasts in the endometrium and ovarian interstitium. New data on the possibilities of lectins application for selective histochemical labeling of distinct cell types and their subpopulations were obtained. In addition, it has been shown that lectins SBA, PNA, SNA can be used for monitoring acrosomal maturation; lectins WGA and HPA - for monitoring the process of gastric glands secretion; WGA, CNFA, SNA, VAA - for monitoring secretion of lingual salivary glands. Since the available literature contains no information concerning the modification of carbohydrate determinants in the adrenal glands of progeny developing under the conditions of maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism, a conclusion is made on prospective use of lectin histochemistry methods for the experimental investigation of inflences of maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on morphogenesis, glycocode and hystophysiology of the progeny adrenal glands. We suppose these data can be of particular interest for basic and applied endocrinology, giving new insight into thyroid-adrenal interactions.
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